Unicorn is a cool application server for Rails. If you have a high traffic website, you would like to restart Unicorn without any downtime, upon a new code deployment or a Gem update which updates unicorn. I wrote an script, exactly for this purpose after learning signal handling basics of Unicorn. Here’s the script. The comments are self-explanatory and fairly give the idea of what is happening.


# Check if unicorn is already running
unicorn_pid=$(ps -ef | grep "unicorn_rails master" | grep -v grep | awk '{print $2}')
if [[ ! -z $unicorn_pid ]]; then
  echo "Unicorn is already running. Sending USR2 to it"
  kill -USR2 $unicorn_pid
  # Wait till new master comes up so two instances of workers are there
  while [[ $(ps -ef | grep 'unicorn_rails worker\[0\]' | grep -v grep | wc -l) -ne 2 ]]; do
    echo "Waiting till new master comes up and spawns new workers"
    sleep 1
  # Send WINCH to old master
  echo "Winching ID $unicorn_pid"
  kill -WINCH $unicorn_pid
  # Wait till old workers die
  while [[ $(ps -ef | grep 'unicorn_rails worker\[0\]' | grep -v grep | wc -l) -ne 1 ]]; do
    echo "Waiting till old workers die"
    sleep 1
  echo "Killing ID $unicorn_pid"
  kill -QUIT $unicorn_pid
  echo "Start fresh copy of unicorn"
  unicorn_rails -c config/unicorn.rb -D

Unicorn provides the facility to reload without losing connected clients. The process can be initiated by sending a USR2 signal to the unicorn master process. Upon recieving this, unicorn will spawn a new master process and name the old process as unicorn master (old). The new master process will also spawn it’s own new workers. Once you are sure that the new workers have been spawned, you can send a WINCH signal to old unicorn master upon receipt of which, old unicorn will shutdown it’s workers gracefully. Gracefully here means that the workers will die once they are done serving their connected clients. Once the old master has shut down all it’s workers, we send a QUIT signal to the old master which then dies peacefully. And now we have the new unicorn loaded with new code and/or new binary. The explanation of signal behavior can be found here.